Schoolchildren regularly have the highest influenza attack rates. Schoolchildren also are accessible for vaccination; school-based vaccine clinics can facilitate delivery of vaccine to a high proportion of children in a short period of time. CAIV-T has advantages for immunization of this group due to the effectiveness of a single dose, ease of administration, and ready acceptance by children. Modeling of control for an influenza epidemic by Longini et al. has shown vaccination of 70% of school children would dampen epidemics and significantly reduce the exposure of vulnerable people in the community. The goal of the central Texas trial is to demonstrate this effect in the field. Universal childhood immunization could be an important supplement to current control efforts. Vaccine coverage with TIV has leveled off since 1997; no progress toward the Healthy People 2010 goals of 90% coverage has been made after 4 years in the new decade. The number of excess deaths is expected to double within the next 25 years if control methods are not intensified. CAIV-T may become an important adjunct to control measures and can facilitate influenza pandemic preparedness.