Since HLA-DP mismatches are known to induce proliferative response in MLR I, we investigated the real impact of the different DP alleles and the possible role of one or several hypervariable regions of the DPB allelic sequences. Accordingly, we performed MLR I between HLA-A, B, DR, DQ, and Dw identical individuals DP oligotyped after DNA amplification. A total of 23 one-DP-mismatched healthy stimulator and responder cells displaying nine different DP specificities were thus evaluated in 52 MLRs I. This allowed us to analyze the impact of amino acid composition of each of the six hypervariable regions independently of the amino acid matching or mismatching in the five others. We show here that DP combinations sharing the same amino acid sequence in the third (C) and fourth (D) hypervariable regions are associated with a low proliferative response in vitro (p less than 0.01). These data imply that a perfect HLA-DP matching may not be requisite in selecting bone marrow donors. Indeed, the choice of donors may rely on determination of these particular mismatched HVRs between the DP alleles involved especially in GvHD direction. This policy including prospective DP oligotyping should be of great interest, especially when MLRs I are false negative or nonevaluable. It will enable a better definition of which DP mismatches are acceptable in BMT.