Anemia is an independent predictor of mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Aug 4;44(3):541-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2004.04.047.


Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess whether anemia is a marker of increased risk during interventional procedure and poor midterm survival after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Background: Anemia is associated with increased risk of mortality in patients with heart failure and myocardial infarction (MI).

Methods: We examined the outcomes of 6,116 consecutive PCI patients based on the hemoglobin (Hb) value before the interventional procedure. Patients were divided into three groups based on the baseline Hb level (g/l): Hb <10 = severe anemia; Hb 10 to 12 = mild anemia; Hb >12 = no anemia.

Results: The presence of anemia is associated with higher 30-day major adverse cardiac events, post-PCI peak troponin and creatine kinase-MB fraction, and a longer length of stay. After controlling for multiple covariates, significant difference in one-year survival was noted in the anemic groups compared with no anemia group (adjusted hazard ratio for Hb 10 to 12: 1.5 [95% confidence interval 1.3 to 1.8]; for Hb <10: 1.8 [95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.3]; p = 0.004.) This adverse effect of anemia on survival was noted in all three presenting clinical syndromes (stable angina, unstable angina, and MI).

Conclusions: Anemia is an independent predictor of mortality after PCI and is associated with higher short-term adverse procedural events.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Anemia, Hypochromic / blood
  • Anemia, Hypochromic / complications
  • Anemia, Hypochromic / mortality*
  • Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary / adverse effects*
  • Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary / mortality*
  • Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic
  • Female
  • Heart Failure / mortality
  • Hemoglobins / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / mortality
  • Odds Ratio
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Analysis


  • Hemoglobins