Background/purpose: The Currarino syndrome (CS) is a peculiar form of caudal regression syndrome (CRS) characterized by the association of hemisacrum, anorectal malformation (ARM), and presacral mass. The authors analyzed retrospectively their series, and they propose a multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapuetic protocol that until now has not been introduced.
Methods: A series of 6 patients with CS is presented. Five of them were treated initially in other centers. None of them had an early diagnosis. All presented associated anomalies; in 50%, Hirschsprung's disease (HD) and other dysganglionoses were present. One patient died of a presacral ectopic nephroblastoma.
Results: Depending on the expressivity, 3 types of CS can be identified, complete, mild, and minimal. Dysganglionoses and HD can be considered part of CS. A multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic protocol is presented. Main points are sacrum x-Ray, molecular genetic diagnosis, radiologic evaluation of every member of CS families, magnetic resonance (MR) evaluation of patient spine and pelvis, suction rectal biopsies, and search for associated anomalies.
Conclusions: This protocol could give a valid contribution to the treatment of CS, allowing an early diagnosis and proposing a rational timing of multidisciplinary surgical procedures. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to avoid morbidity and mortality from an undiagnosed presacral mass.