Ovarian carcinoma is a malignant disease with a high rate of recurrence, necessitating repeated chemotherapy treatments. We conducted a retrospective study in patients with platinum- and paclitaxel-resistant ovarian, fallopian tubes and primary peritoneal carcinoma patients treated at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. We evaluated the responses, progression-free intervals, and overall survival duration of 51 patients after third-line chemotherapy treatment. The overall response rate was 16% (eight cases) with 2% complete response rate (one case) and 14% partial response rate (seven cases). Stable disease was achieved in 31% (16 cases). The progression-free intervals of 24 patients who had response and stable disease was 7.4 months (range, 1.4-18.4 months). The median overall survival of all patients was 15.8 months (95% CI, 8.1-23.4 months). The median survival duration of eight responders was not significantly different from that of 43 nonresponders, 18.9 months (95% CI, 2.4-35.4 months) versus 15.8 months (95% CI, 6.4-25.2 months), respectively (P = 0.73). In conclusion, third-line chemotherapy in our study results in a modest response and prolongation of progression-free interval without obvious impact on survival. The decision to utilize third-line chemotherapy will be a balance of the limited efficacy, toxicity of the agents, and the expertise of the clinician.