Few reports exist on the association between the humoral immune response to glycolipids and neuropathic findings in diabetes. To address this issue, we assayed serum anti-GM1, GD1b, GD1a, and sulfatides IgG and IgM in a group of 85 non-selected diabetic patients, and correlated these antibodies to clinical and electrophysiological findings. Diabetic patients had higher mean titers of anti-GM1 (IgM), GD1b, GD1a, and sulfatide (IgG) antibodies when compared to healthy controls. Patients with a positive titer of anti-ganglioside antibodies had significant alterations of motor conduction parameters. The statistical significance increased when considering those patients with both anti-ganglioside reactivity and a high value for glycosylated hemoglobin. Production of antibodies to ganglioside may follow the exposure of hidden motor nerve epitopes in damaged motor nerves and contribute to the neuropathy.