Background: Bupropion hydrochloride is recommended for smoking cessation; however, there have been relatively few clinical trials examining its efficacy.
Methods: A total of 244 current smokers were enrolled in an outpatient randomized blinded smoking cessation trial conducted at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, Calif. Of the 244 participants, 121 received a 7-week course of bupropion and 123 received placebo. All participants received 2 months of transdermal nicotine replacement therapy and 3 months of cognitive-behavioral counseling. We determined on-medication treatment, end-of-medication treatment, 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year quit rates.
Results: During treatment with bupropion vs placebo, there was a trend toward increased quit rates among participants randomized to bupropion; the self-reported end-of-medication treatment quit rates were 64% for the bupropion group vs 57% for the placebo group (P =.23). The trend favoring bupropion persisted at 3 months of follow-up (P =.12) but was not apparent at 6 months and 1 year of follow-up (both P>.78). The 12-month quit rates, validated by either saliva cotinine or spousal proxy, were 22% in the bupropion group and 28% in the placebo group (P =.31). Based on biochemical validation, 19% of the bupropion group vs 24% of the placebo group had quit smoking by 1 year (P =.36).
Conclusions: In this randomized blinded trial of mostly veteran participants, the addition of a brief 7-week bupropion trial to treatment with nicotine replacement therapy and counseling did not significantly increase smoking cessation rates.