Congenital esophageal atresia (EA) and/or tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) are common congenital anomalies. Respiratory and GI complications occur frequently, and may persist lifelong. Late complications of EA/TEF include tracheomalacia, a recurrence of the TEF, esophageal stricture, and gastroesophageal reflux. These complications may lead to a brassy or honking-type cough, dysphagia, recurrent pneumonia, obstructive and restrictive ventilatory defects, and airway hyperreactivity. Aspiration should be excluded in children and adults with a history of EA/TEF who present with respiratory symptoms and/or recurrent lower respiratory infections, to prevent chronic pulmonary disease.