Background: Neo-aortic root dilation (ARD) and neo-aortic regurgitation (AR) may be progressive after arterial switch operation (ASO) for d-loop transposition of the great arteries (dTGA). We sought to identify predictors of ARD and AR after ASO.
Methods and results: 335 patients were identified who underwent ASO for dTGA with intact ventricular septum or ventricular septal defect (VSD), including double-outlet right ventricle (DORV), before 2001 with at least 1 postoperative echocardiogram at our institution, at least 1 year after ASO, and no previous atrial switch procedure (median follow-up of 5.0 years). Probability of freedom from ARD was 97%, 92%, 82%, and 51%, from at least moderate AR was 98%, 97%, 96%, and 93%, and from neo-aortic valve or root surgery was 100%, 100%, 99%, and 95%, at 1, 2, 5, and 10 years, respectively. For patients in whom ARD developed, progressive dilation was not observed during late follow-up. By Kaplan-Meier method, independent predictors of ARD, with neo-aortic root z-score of > or =3.0, were previous pulmonary artery band (PAB) (P=0.002, hazard ratio [HR]=2.4) and later time period when ASO was performed (P<0.002, HR=19.0). Risk factor for at least moderate AR was age > or =1 year at ASO (P=0.002, HR=5.8), which was closely related to VSD repair at ASO (P<0.001) and previous PAB.
Conclusions: Significant ARD and AR continue to develop over time after ASO, but ARD does not tend to be progressive during late follow-up. Previous PAB was a significant risk factor for ARD. Older age at time of ASO, presence of VSD, and previous PAB were risk factors for AR.