Radiation therapy is a powerful tool for the treatment of oesophageal cancer. We established radioresistant cell lines by applying fractionated irradiation in order to identify differentially expressed genes between parent and radioresistant cells. Six oesophageal cancer cell lines (TE-2, TE-5, TE-9, TE-13, KYSE170, and KYSE180) were treated with continuous 2 Gy fractionated irradiation (total dose 60 Gy). We compared expression profiles of each parent and radioresistant lines on a cDNA microarray consisting of 21168 genes. In the fractionated irradiation trial, four radioresistant sublines (TE-2R, TE-9R, TE-13R, KYSE170R) were established successfully, and we identified 19 upregulated and 28 downregulated genes common to radioresistant sublines. Upregulated genes were associated with apoptosis and inflammatory response (BIRC2 and COX-2), DNA metabolism (CD73), and cell growth (PLAU). Downregulated genes were associated with apoptosis (CASP6), cell adhesion (CDH1 and CDH3), transcription (MLL3), and cell cycle (CDK6). Some of these genes were known to be associated with radiation response, such as COX-2, but others were novel. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction confirmed that genes selected by cDNA microarray were overexpressed in clinical specimens of radioresistant cases. Global gene analysis of radioresistant sublines may provide new insight into mechanisms of radioresistance and effective radiation therapy.