We describe 2 patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) who underwent lung transplantation. Case 1 reports a patient with NF1 with no complications 5 years after bilateral lung transplantation. Case 2 details a patient with NF1 diagnosed with both post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) and massive intra-abdominal sarcoma consistent with a malignant nerve sheath tumor 9 months after lung transplantation. There was no clinical evidence of sarcoma preceding or immediately following lung transplant as demonstrated by a normal abdominal sonogram 3 months post-transplantation. Although an increased risk for cancer has been documented in NF1, the rapid malignant degeneration of a neurofibroma following transplantation raises concern about immunosuppression and transplantation candidacy among individuals with NF1.