The Seventh Banff Conference on Allograft Pathology was held June 14-18, 2003 in Aberdeen, Scotland representing the latest iteration of the international consensus meeting, which develops worldwide standards for interpretation of allograft biopsies. The meeting is an important force behind standardized slide interpretation to strengthen endpoints in international clinical trials. Of participants polled 87% reported that they would alter clinical practice as a direct consequence of the meeting and its content. Advances were made in many areas including tubulitis mechanisms, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) gene analysis and microarrays in rejection diagnosis, tolerance/accommodation/immunomodulation, the role of monocytes and macrophages in rejection and C4d as a marker for antibody-mediated rejection. A provisional scoring system for peritubular capillary inflammatory cell accumulation in antibody-mediated rejection was presented for testing, as well as plans for a nephrectomy study to determine specificity of vascular lesions of rejection. Future meetings are planned for 2005 (Edmonton), 2007 and 2009, with active ongoing Internet discussion between meetings.