Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of cytokine genes have been shown to influence cytokine plasma levels. Cytokines are important mediators during organ graft rejection. It was reported that certain cytokine genotypes are associated with improved kidney graft survival. In the present study, SNPs within the IL10 promoter gene, the first exon of the TGFbeta1 gene, the TNFalpha promoter gene, and the IL4Ralpha gene were analyzed in 2298 first and 1901 repeat cadaver kidney recipients. We found no significant effect on the survival rate of first grafts. Among retransplants, we observed that recipients who were homozygous for the high TNFalpha producer genotype -308 A had a significantly lower graft survival rate than patients who were carriers of the low producer genotype -308 G (at 3 years: 63.0% vs. 79.5%; pcorrected = 0.0116). The results of this large-scale study suggest that IL10, TGFbeta1, TNFalpha, and IL4Ralpha cytokine genotypes do not affect the survival of primary kidney grafts. The outcome of retransplants appears to be affected by TNFalpha genotypes only.