In order to determine metabolic disorders in children with urolithiasis, 50 patients with urinary calculi were studied. Abdominal pain and/or haematuria were the most predominant symptoms. Surgical procedures were required in 22% of these children and urinary tract infection was observed in 34% of this group. Only 2 children had anatomical malformations of the urinary tract. Absorptive hypercalciuria (32%), renal hypercalciuria (34%) and uric acid hyperexcretion (24%) were the most common metabolic abnormalities in these children. We were unable to find an underlying metabolic abnormality in only 14% of the patients. These data suggest that appropriate metabolic study will allow rational management of children with urinary stones.