Comparison between self-report and a dipstick method (NicCheck 1) to assess nicotine intake

Eur Addict Res. 2004;10(4):163-7. doi: 10.1159/000079837.


The purpose of this study was to investigate the agreement between self-reported tobacco consumption and NicCheck 1 (Dynagen Inc. Cambridge, Mass., USA) regarding smoking status and nicotine intake in a population of smokers (20.8%) and non-smokers. NicCheck 1 is a dipstick that changes colour in the presence of urinary nicotine metabolites. Smoking was assessed by self-report and NicCheck 1 in 169 males and 191 females (mean age 36.0 SD 0.7). Self-report and NicCheck 1 agreed highly on smoking status, especially in moderate to heavy smokers. With regard to nicotine intake, there was a large overlap in self-reported tobacco consumption between NicCheck 1 levels, despite a relatively high correlation coefficient between self-report and NicCheck 1 in smokers (i.e. 0.74). No effect modification by gender or BMI was found. When both methods were validated against two blood lipid parameters, self-report seemed to do equally well as NicCheck 1 in assessing nicotine intake.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Cohort Studies
  • Colorimetry
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Netherlands
  • Nicotine / administration & dosage
  • Nicotine / urine*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Reagent Strips*
  • Self Disclosure*
  • Smoking / urine*
  • Statistics as Topic
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / diagnosis*
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / epidemiology
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / urine


  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Reagent Strips
  • Nicotine
  • Cholesterol