Thirty-four symptomatic cases of inherited transcobalamin II (TCII) deficiency were analysed in order to determine the frequency and nature of neurologic manifestations. In no instance was there definite evidence of a neurologic disorder at the time of presentation as a young infant. One child of 2 1/2 years transiently lost deep tendon reflexes at a time of suboptimal treatment. A syndrome of mental retardation and other neurologic manifestations was observed in three cases, all with the following in common: (1) an extended duration of illness of 2-17 years; (2) inadequate or not treatment with Cbl; (3) treatment with folic of folinic acid. TCII deficiency rarely if ever presents with neurologic manifestations. However, neurologic disorders can be produced subsequently by improper treatment.