Pharmacogenetics provides opportunities for informed decision-making along the pharmaceutical pipeline. There is a growing literature of retrospective studies of marketed medicines that describe efficacy or safety on the basis of patient genotypes. These studies emphasize the potential prospective use of genome information to enhance success in finding new medicines. An example of a prospective efficacy pharmacogenetic Phase-IIA proof-of-concept study is described. Inserting a rapidly performed efficacy pharmacogenetic step after initial clinical data are obtained can provide confidence for a commitment to full drug development. The rapid identification of adverse events during and after drug development using genomic mapping tools is also reviewed.