The metabolic effects of a biguanide, metformin, on glycemic control and eating behavior were investigated in 16 type 2 diabetic subjects with mental retardation who were habitual overeaters and had difficulty in controlling their appetites. The subjects (n = 16) received metformin (750 mg/day) for 6 months and body weight, body mass index (BMI) were measured monthly. They had repetitive metabolic and hormonal studies. Their eating behavior was analyzed by questionnaires given by their guardians before and after treatment. Metformin treatment significantly reduced their body weights (p < 0.01), body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.01), the levels of HbA1c (p < 0.001), fasting blood glucose (FBG) (p < 0.05), serum insulin (p < 0.05), C-peptide (p < 0.01), triglyceride (p < 0.01), and total cholesterol (p < 0.05). Insulin resistance index (FBG (mg/dl) x serum insulin levels ( micro U/ml) x 1/405) was significantly reduced after 1-month treatment. The serum leptin levels were significantly decreased after 4 month's treatment and thereafter (p < 0.05). Analysis of the questionnaires before and after treatment showed that the daily intake of regular and additional foods significantly decreased after treatment (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively) with improvements of eating behavior. We conclude that metformin may have beneficial effects not only to control glycemia but also to correct eating behavior in obese type 2 diabetic patients with the difficulty in controlling their appetites. The improvement was related to the reduction of insulin resistance and serum leptin levels.