Endoglin is an endothelial homodimeric membrane antigen containing the tripeptide arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD), which is a recognition motif for adhesion receptors of the integrin family. We have investigated the expression of endoglin by monocyte/macrophage cells from different tissue compartments and at different stages of cell differentiation. Although endoglin is absent from peripheral blood monocytes, it is expressed by in vitro differentiated monocytes as determined by flow cytometry using the endoglin-specific monoclonal antibody 44G4 and 8E11. Furthermore, Northern blot analyses revealed a correlation between the presence of endoglin mRNA and the surface expression of the antigen by in vitro differentiated monocytes. Immunostaining of frozen tissue sections with the 8E11 monoclonal antibody demonstrated the presence of endoglin not only in the endothelium of all the tissues studied, but also on the interstitial macrophages present in the red pulp of the spleen. Using as a model of macrophage differentiation monocytic cell lines treated with phorbol esters, we found that the reactivity of the 8E11 monoclonal antibody is greatly increased on U-937 and HL-60 cells during their PMA-induced differentiation. These findings clearly demonstrate for the first time the regulated expression of the putative adhesion molecule endoglin by macrophages.