Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) can replace lost neurons and improve the functional deficits. Cell transplantation strategies have been tried in the epileptic disorder, but the effect of exogenous NSCs is unknown. In this study, we attempted to test the anti-epileptogenic effect of NSCs in adult rats with status epilepticus. Experimental status epilepticus was induced by lithium-pilocarpine injection, and beta galactosidase-encoded human NSCs were transplanted intravenously on the next day of status epilepticus. Spontaneous recurrent seizures were monitored with Racine's seizure severity scale. Immunohistochemistry with anti-beta gal, Tuj-1, NeuN, GFAP, CNPase, GluR2, parvalbumin, and GABA were performed and extracellular field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) were recorded. Human NSCs suppressed spontaneous recurrent seizure formation and transplanted NSCs were differentiated into GABA-immunoreactive interneurons in the damaged hippocampus. Amplitude of fEPSP in the hippocampal CA1 was reduced, which was reversed by picrotoxin. These findings suggest that NSCs could be differentiated into inhibitory interneurons and decrease neuronal excitability, which could prevent spontaneous recurrent seizure formation in adult rats with pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.