Erythrocyte indexes, iron metabolism, and hyperhomocysteinemia in adults with cyanotic congenital cardiac disease

Am J Cardiol. 2004 Sep 15;94(6):825-8. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.06.014.


A high percentage of cyanotic adults (37%) with cyanotic congenital cardiac disease (CCD) presented with depleted iron stores (13 of 52) or latent iron deficiency (6 of 52), even in a CCD center in which cyanotic patient phlebotomy is mostly avoided. In many of these patients, hypochromia and microcytosis was frequent, whereas hyperchromia and macrocytosis were relatively common.Furthermore, 50% of patients presented with hyperhomocysteinemia, possibly related to folate or B vitamin deficiencies, which may increase red blood cell size and color, explaining the lack of microcytosis and hypochromia in many cyanotic patients with iron deficiency.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / complications*
  • Erythrocyte Indices*
  • Female
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / complications*
  • Humans
  • Hyperhomocysteinemia / etiology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged