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Review
. 2004 Sep;136(1):2443-50.
doi: 10.1104/pp.104.046755.

Sulfur Assimilatory Metabolism. The Long and Smelling Road

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Free PMC article
Review

Sulfur Assimilatory Metabolism. The Long and Smelling Road

Kazuki Saito. Plant Physiol. .
Free PMC article

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Sulfur assimilatory metabolism in the subcellular compartments of plant cells. Black indicates name of metabolites: Ac-CoA, acetyl-CoA; APS, adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate; CN-Ala, β-cyano-Ala; GSH, reduced glutathione; GS-X, glutathione conjugate; OAS, O-acetyl-Ser; PAPS, 3′-phosphoadenosine-5′-phosphosulfate (3′-phosphoadenylylsulfate); SMM, S-methyl-Met. Blue indicates names of cofactors: GSH, reduced glutathione; Fdred, reduced ferredoxin. Red indicates the name of proteins: APK, APS kinase; APR, adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate reductase; APS, ATP sulfurylase; BCS, β-cyano-Ala synthase; OASTL, OAS(thiol)-lyase; SAT, Ser acetyltransferase; SIO, sulfite oxidase; SIR, sulfite reductase; SULTR, sulfate transporter.
Figure 2.
Figure 2.
Regulatory circuit in the protein complex of Ser acetyltransferase (spheres) and OAS(thiol)-lyase (boxes). Concentrations of OAS(thiol)-lyase are in excess of Ser acetyltransferase. The bound OAS(thiol)-lyase positively modulates the activity of Ser acetyltransferase in the protein complex. The free form of OAS(thiol)-lyase actually catalyzes the formation of Cys that negatively acts on Ser acetyltransferase. Sulfur deficiency causes the increase of OAS eventually resulting in dissociation of the complex. The free form of Ser acetyltransferase has only limited activity. In turn, the increased sulfur supply accumulates sulfide to promote the formation of the complex.
Figure 3.
Figure 3.
Positive and negative regulation of sulfur assimilatory metabolism. Sulfur starvation and increased demand of sulfur metabolites induce assimilatory metabolism. OAS also acts as a positive factor for induction. Plant development, circadian rhythms, and hormones influence sulfur metabolism either positively or negatively. As negative factors, Cys and GSH regulate specific steps of sulfur metabolism. Arrow indicates the positive effect, and bar indicates the negative effect.

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