Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on the adenylate kinase activity of rod outer segment of bovine retina

Bioelectromagnetics. 2004 Oct;25(7):545-51. doi: 10.1002/bem.20031.


Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) of 75 Hz with amplitudes above a threshold of about 125 microT have a dramatic effect on the adenylate kinase (AK) activity of the rod outer segment (ROS) membranes. In fact, the ATP production by ROS membranes or by purified disk membranes placed in the field decreased by approximately 54%. The decrease in enzymatic activity was independent of the time of exposure to the field and was completely reversible. When disk membranes were solubilized with Triton or a soluble isoform of AK was used, negligible effects of the field were obtained on the enzymatic activity, suggesting that the membrane has an important role in determining the conditions for the enzyme inactivation.

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphate / radiation effects
  • Adenylate Kinase / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Adenylate Kinase / radiation effects*
  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Cell Membrane / enzymology
  • Cell Membrane / radiation effects
  • Electromagnetic Fields*
  • Isoenzymes / radiation effects
  • Polyethylene Glycols / pharmacology
  • Rod Cell Outer Segment / enzymology
  • Rod Cell Outer Segment / radiation effects*
  • Solubility
  • Surface-Active Agents / pharmacology
  • Time Factors


  • Isoenzymes
  • Surface-Active Agents
  • Polyethylene Glycols
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Adenylate Kinase