Among the reasons given for surgery in refractive accommodative esotropia (RAET) are (1) frequent functional deterioration and (2) high prevalence of cyclovertical strabismus and oblique muscle dysfunctions. Of 30 patients with RAET, corrected with glasses and followed for an average of seven years only one deteriorated. We tested a second group of 53 patients with RAET for A- and V-patterns and dysfunction of the oblique muscles. Pseudo-A- and V-patterns occurred without glasses but were absent when glasses were worn during the measurement. Dysfunctions of the oblique muscles were observed without glasses but were clinically insignificant. Our data do not support the reasons cited above for performing surgery in RAET.