Modulation of Rho GTPases by type III secretion system translocated effectors of Yersinia

Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol. 2004;152:65-77. doi: 10.1007/s10254-004-0035-3. Epub 2004 Sep 18.


Pathogenic species of the bacterial genus Yersinia subdue the immune system to proliferate and spread within the host organism. For this purpose yersiniae employ a type III secretion apparatus which governs injection of six effector proteins ( Y ersinia outer proteins; Yops) into host cells. Yops control various regulatory and signalling proteins in a unique and highly specific manner. YopE, YopT, and YpkA/YopO modulate the activity of Rho GTP-binding proteins, whereas YopH dephosphorylates phospho-tyrosine residues in focal adhesion proteins. Furthermore, YopP/YopJ and YopM affect cell survival/apoptosis and cell proliferation, respectively. In this review the focus will be on the biochemistry and cellular effects of YopT, YopE, YopO/YpkA, and YopH.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Proteins / physiology*
  • Down-Regulation
  • Yersinia / enzymology*
  • Yersinia / pathogenicity
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism*


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins