Pathogenic species of the bacterial genus Yersinia subdue the immune system to proliferate and spread within the host organism. For this purpose yersiniae employ a type III secretion apparatus which governs injection of six effector proteins ( Y ersinia outer proteins; Yops) into host cells. Yops control various regulatory and signalling proteins in a unique and highly specific manner. YopE, YopT, and YpkA/YopO modulate the activity of Rho GTP-binding proteins, whereas YopH dephosphorylates phospho-tyrosine residues in focal adhesion proteins. Furthermore, YopP/YopJ and YopM affect cell survival/apoptosis and cell proliferation, respectively. In this review the focus will be on the biochemistry and cellular effects of YopT, YopE, YopO/YpkA, and YopH.