This review discusses the challenges and applications of DNA microarray technology as it is being used in each of the four major research areas of the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command: military infectious diseases, combat casualty care, military operational medicine, and medical chemical and biological defense. The overall objective of this review is two-fold. First, the objective is to increase awareness in senior military leadership of the challenges and opportunities presented by DNA microarray technology and the emerging and rapidly changing field of bioinformatics. Second, the aim is to publicize to the civilian research community the additional challenges associated with the use of microarray technology in military medical research. This discussion contains material that would be useful for making programmatic recommendations that team strategic research investments and emerging technologies with U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command resources.