The rapid physical and emotional conditioning that occurs during Basic Cadet Training (BCT) creates ample opportunity for injuries and illnesses. The goal of this analysis will be to document the magnitude of injury and illness problems during BCT at the Air Force Academy and to identify potential risk factors for targeted prevention efforts. Data used in this study were collected on the basic cadet population from various sources during BCT 2002. Data analysis for this retrospective observational study included cumulative incidences, chi2 analysis, and logistic regression. Risk factors for injuries included being of the female gender, being an intercollegiate athlete, being overweight, and having an obese body mass index (BMI). Female gender, military preparatory school attendance, and obese BMI were risk factors for illnesses. Future BCT medical surveillance should focus on females, recruited athletes, and those with high BMIs. Prevention efforts should focus on reducing ankle sprains and respiratory infections to limit the amount of lost training time.