Aim: To use polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-microtiter plate hybridization assays to detect Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum (biovar 1) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (biovar 2) in first-voided urine specimens from patients with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU).
Methods: A total of 153 male patients with NGU, who visited one of 24 clinics in Japan, were recruited for this study. All were examined using PCR-microtiter plate hybridization assays for the presence of M. genitalium, M. hominis, U. parvum (biovar 1) and U. urealyticum (biovar 2) in first-voided urine specimens. They were also examined for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis.
Results: Of these 153 patients, 73 (47.7%) were positive for C. trachomatis. Overall, the prevalence was 17.0% for M. genitalium, 16.3% for U. urealyticum (biovar 2), 7.8% for U. parvum (biovar 1) and 2.6% for M. hominis. In the 80 patients with non-chlamydial NGU, the prevalence of M. genitalium, U. urealyticum (biovar 2), U. parvum (biovar 1) and M. hominis was 23.8%, 18.8%, 8.8% and 2.6%, respectively.
Conclusions: This study shows the prevalence of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas in NGU in Japan. M. genitalium and U. urealyticum (biovar 2) might be pathogens of NGU and could be associated with persistent and recurrent urethritis. When patients with NGU are treated, such pathogens should be taken into account. This PCR-microtiter plate hybridization assay provides a useful method for diagnosing NGU caused by M. genitalium and U. urealyticum (biovar 2).