Retinoic acid signalling in the development of branchial arches

Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2004 Oct;14(5):591-8. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2004.07.012.


Branchial arches develop through a complex sequence of interactions between migrating cells, derived from neural crest and mesoderm, and epithelia of ectodermal and endodermal origin, to yield a variety of derivatives, notably skeletal elements, arteries and glands. In all vertebrate species, dramatic malformations generated by experimental blocks or activations of retinoic acid signalling highlight key roles for this molecule in the endoderm for branchial arch formation and morphogenesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Branchial Region / cytology
  • Branchial Region / embryology*
  • Branchial Region / metabolism*
  • Cell Movement
  • Humans
  • Receptors, Retinoic Acid / chemistry
  • Receptors, Retinoic Acid / genetics
  • Receptors, Retinoic Acid / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Tretinoin / metabolism*


  • Receptors, Retinoic Acid
  • Tretinoin