Numerous lines of investigation suggest that nuclear factor NF-kappaB, a proinflammatory transcription factor, could promote tumorigenesis. Various inflammatory agents, carcinogens, tumor promoters, and the tumor microenvironment activate NF-kappaB. NF-kappaB proteins themselves and proteins regulated by it have been linked to cellular transformation, proliferation, apoptosis suppression, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Constitutively activated NF-kappaB is common in wide variety of tumors. Furthermore, there exists genetic evidence that NF-kappaB mediates tumorigenesis. Thus, suppression of NF-kappaB activation should be effective in the prevention and treatment of cancer.