Determination of porphyrins and biliverdin in bile and excreta of birds by a single liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection analysis

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2004 Oct 25;810(2):305-11. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2004.08.019.


Methods developed for porphyrin analysis have low recoveries and/or poor precision for the less polar protoporphyrin IX. We describe a simple method of analysis of porphyrins and biliverdin in bile and excreta of birds based on extraction with HCl 3N: acetonitrile and HPLC/UV analyses. Recoveries were good for protoporphyrin IX and other porphyrins (>79%). Applications of this method showed that porphyrins and biliverdin in birds excreta are mainly of biliary-fecal origin rather than urinary origin. Biliverdin and protoporphyrin IX increased proportionately more than the rest of the porphyrins and coproporphyrin III increased more than coproporphyrin I in the bile of Pb-poisoned mallards.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bile / chemistry*
  • Biliverdine / analysis*
  • Birds / metabolism*
  • Calibration
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Ducks
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Feces / chemistry*
  • Geese
  • Indicators and Reagents
  • Lead Poisoning / metabolism
  • Porphyrins / analysis*
  • Raptors
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Specimen Handling
  • Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet


  • Indicators and Reagents
  • Porphyrins
  • Biliverdine