Noncompliance (NC) with the dialysis prescription has been described as a common problem in dialysis patients. In previous studies, NC in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients has been assessed by obtaining patient or family histories, using questionnaires, and making home visits. With the use of the HomeChoice Pro Chip Card (PCC: Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL, U.S.A.), the dialysis staff can monitor the total volume of dialysate used, the frequency of exchanges, and the duration of dialysis in patients maintained on automated peritoneal dialysis (APD). Last year, we reported that the PCC was an effective tool for assessing compliance and noted that more than half of patients had a compliance rate (CR) < 95%. In the present study, we examined the impact of patient education on compliance with the prescribed dialysis regimen. We evaluated our APD patients for CR with their dialysis prescription. The PCC was used to record the duration of dialysis and the actual volume of fluid used. From October 2002 to September 2003, all patients maintained at home for 3 consecutive months on APD in the New Haven continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis unit were educated concerning the importance of compliance with their dialysis regimen. They were also educated about the function of the PCC and were informed that the dialysis facility would be monitoring their compliance with the prescribed regimen. Compliance rates were calculated by dividing the delivered dialysis volume by the prescribed dialysis volume and multiplying by 100. We obtained data on 42 APD patients. Of the 42 patients, 35 (83%) had a CR > or = 95%, 3 (7%) had a CR between 90% and 94.9%, and 4 (10%) had a CR < 90%. Those CRs are much better than the ones we had previously reported, before the institution of the patient education program. The PCC can be used to assess compliance in APD patients. Patient education results in an improvement in patient compliance. Further study is required to determine factors that affect CR in APD patients.