Simultaneous bilateral breast reconstruction with superior gluteal artery perforator (SGAP) flaps

Ann Plast Surg. 2004 Oct;53(4):305-10. doi: 10.1097/


The superior gluteal artery perforator (SGAP) flap is a useful technique for restoration of the breast after mastectomy. If appropriately planned, the soft-tissue envelope supplied by the superior gluteal artery perforator vessels can be harvested with minimal donor site morbidity and often results in a highly esthetic restoration of the breasts. Dissection of the flap is performed with complete preservation of gluteus maximus muscle function. The resulting vascular pedicle obtained via dissection through the muscle is longer than that of gluteal musculocutaneous flaps and affords the surgeon the luxury of avoiding vein grafts in the anastomotic phase of surgery. Despite these advantages, use of the SGAP flap is not popular among reconstructive surgeons. Many practitioners are not familiar with the vascular anatomy of the gluteal area and may not be comfortable with the dissection of the parent vessels or lack the desire to practice microsurgery. On the other hand, our group has reported the largest experience to date with this method of breast reconstruction and has found the SGAP flap to be a reliable and safe method of autologous breast restoration in unilateral absence of the breast. Although the indications to perform single-stage gluteal tissue transplantation for bilateral breast restoration are uncommon, they do occasionally arise in clinical practice. We have carried out concurrent bilateral breast reconstruction using SGAP flaps on 6 patients with acceptable overall morbidity. All flaps went on to survive and resulted in highly esthetic restorations of the breast. Though a challenging undertaking, in-unison transfer of bilateral SGAP flaps serves as a useful option for a subset of patients desiring 1-stage bilateral breast reconstruction.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Arteries / transplantation*
  • Buttocks / blood supply
  • Female
  • Graft Survival
  • Humans
  • Ischemia
  • Mammaplasty / methods*
  • Mastectomy
  • Middle Aged
  • Surgical Flaps* / blood supply