Effect of lifestyle modifications on blood pressure by race, sex, hypertension status, and age

J Hum Hypertens. 2005 Jan;19(1):21-31. doi: 10.1038/sj.jhh.1001770.


Recommendations for control of high blood pressure (BP) emphasize lifestyle modification, including weight loss, reduced sodium intake, increased physical activity, and limited alcohol consumption. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern also lowers BP. The PREMIER randomized trial tested multicomponent lifestyle interventions on BP in demographic and clinical subgroups. Participants with above-optimal BP through stage 1 hypertension were randomized to an Advice Only group or one of two behavioural interventions that implement established recommendations (Est) or established recommendations plus DASH diet (Est plus DASH). The primary outcome was change in systolic BP at 6 months. The study population was 810 individuals with an average age of 50 years, 62% women, 34% African American (AA), 95% overweight/obese, and 38% hypertensive. Participants in all the three groups made lifestyle changes. Mean net reductions in systolic (S) BP in the Est intervention were 1.2 mmHg in AA women, 6.0 in AA men, 4.5 in non-AA women, and 4.2 in non-AA men. The mean effects of the Est Plus DASH intervention were 2.1, 4.6, 4.2, and 5.7 mmHg in the four race-sex subgroups, respectively. BP changes were consistently greater in hypertensives than in nonhypertensives, although interaction tests were nonsignificant. The Est intervention caused statistically significant BP reductions in individuals over and under age 50. The Est Plus DASH intervention lowered BP in both age groups, and significantly more so in older individuals. In conclusion, diverse groups of people can adopt multiple lifestyle changes that can lead to improved BP control and reduced CVD risk.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • African Americans
  • Age Factors
  • Diet, Sodium-Restricted*
  • Directive Counseling*
  • Female
  • Health Behavior
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / therapy*
  • Life Style*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient Education as Topic*
  • Sex Factors
  • Weight Loss