Profound changes in breast cancer incidence may reflect changes into a Westernized lifestyle: a comparative population-based study in Singapore and Sweden

Int J Cancer. 2005 Jan 10;113(2):302-6. doi: 10.1002/ijc.20561.


Breast cancer incidence in Sweden has always been approximately twice as high as in Singapore. In recent years, this difference is limited to postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to explore the reasons behind these differences through the use of age-period-cohort modeling. This population-based study included all breast cancer cases reported to the Swedish and the Singapore cancer registries from 1968 to 1997, with a total of 135,581 Swedish and 10,716 Singaporean women. Poisson regression using age-period and age-cohort models was used to determine the effects of age at diagnosis, calendar period and birth cohort. Incidence rate ratios were used to summarize these effects. An age-cohort model provided the best fit to the data in both countries, indicating that changes over lifetime, rather than recent differences in medical surveillance, might account for the observed differences in these 2 populations. The changes over birth cohort were much greater among Singaporean women. The relative effect of age was very similar in the 2 countries. Analyses show that age and cohort effects may explain the differences in trends of female breast cancer incidence between Sweden and Singapore. The larger cohort effect seen in Singaporean women may be attributed to more rapid changes in reproduction and lifestyle patterns than that of Swedish women during the period studied. The incidence of breast cancer in postmenopausal women in Singapore will probably continue to rise in the coming decades to match the current Swedish rates.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Epidemiologic Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Life Style*
  • Middle Aged
  • Postmenopause
  • Registries / statistics & numerical data*
  • Regression Analysis
  • Singapore / epidemiology
  • Sweden / epidemiology