In spite of the increasing number of women medical students, in many specialties the number of women actually working as doctors still lags behind the number of men working in the same profession. To define factors contributing to this discrepancy 646 medical students at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam were surveyed. A questionnaire was used to obtain information about the difference between women and men medical students concerning their outlook on a future career as combined with domestic responsibilities. The questionnaire covered the items motives and career preference, barriers to reaching the profession of first choice, career planning and the combination of domestic responsibilities and a medical career. The results of this survey indicate that there are still important differences between women and men students in career perspectives. These differences need attention from medical students as well as teaching staff.