We sought to determine whether orally consumed broccoli sprouts could eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection in infected human volunteers. Helicobacter pylori-positive patients were identified by stool antigen testing or gastric biopsies. Patients consumed broccoli sprouts (14, 28, or 56 g) twice daily for 7 days. We performed stool antigen testing immediately following the completion of treatment (day 8) and at day 35. Urea breath testing was performed on those patients who remained negative at day 35. Patients completed pre- and posttreatment questionnaires regarding symptoms (abdominal discomfort--pain, nausea, bloating), recent medications, and palatability. Nine patients completed the course of treatment and began follow-up testing. Seven of nine (78%) patients were stool antigen negative immediately after the completion of therapy and six remained negative at day 35. Urea breath testing was completed on six patients. Two patients were negative, two positive, and two indeterminate. Endoscopic gastric biopsies were obtained from one patient with an indeterminate breath test and the tissue was negative for H. pylori by immunohistochemical staining. Of the five patients who provided information on pre- and posttreatment symptoms, two reported improvement, one no change, and one reported worsening. Six patients rated the taste of broccoli sprouts from okay to very good; one patient stated they were "not good." Consumption of oral broccoli sprouts was temporally associated with eradication of H. pylori infection in three of nine patients. Most patients found broccoli sprouts palatable. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal dose of broccoli sprouts and whether concomitant proton pump inhibitors or antibiotics might augment the effectiveness.