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, 54 (Pt 5), 1489-97

Parvibaculum Lavamentivorans Gen. Nov., Sp. Nov., a Novel Heterotroph That Initiates Catabolism of Linear Alkylbenzenesulfonate

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Parvibaculum Lavamentivorans Gen. Nov., Sp. Nov., a Novel Heterotroph That Initiates Catabolism of Linear Alkylbenzenesulfonate

David Schleheck et al. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol.

Abstract

Strain DS-1T is a small (0.8 microm in length and 0.2 microm in diameter) heterotrophic bacterium able to omega-oxygenate the commercial surfactant linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) and shorten the side chain by beta-oxidation to yield sulfophenylcarboxylates. The morphotype is widespread in cultures able to utilize LAS, and a second organism with similar characteristics, strain AN-8, is now available. Utilization of LAS is concomitant with formation of a biofilm, and cells were non-motile. Many surfactants were utilized. The organisms also grew with acetate or octane, but required no biofilm and were motile. Analysis of the gene encoding 16S rRNA placed the organisms in the alpha-subclass of the Proteobacteria with a sequence divergence of >8 % from any species whose name has been validly published. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison with entries in the GenBank database showed 98 % similarity to an alpha-protobacterial marine isolate, JP57: strain JP57 displayed the same morphotype as strain DS-1T, but it was unable to utilize surfactants or any single source of carbon tested. The lipid components of strains DS-1T and JP57 were virtually identical. The fatty acids contained ester- and putative amide-linked hydroxy fatty acids, in a combination that is currently unique in the alpha-Proteobacteria. The major respiratory quinone present in both strains was Q11. The polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and two unidentified aminolipids. Data on the 16S rRNA gene sequence and the lipid composition indicated that strains DS-1T and JP57 should be placed in a new genus, for which the name Parvibaculum is proposed. The differences between these strains, supported by DNA hybridizations, lead to the conclusion that strain DS-1T (= DSM 13023T = NCIMB 13966T) is the type strain of a species in the genus Parvibaculum, for which the name Parvibaculum lavamentivorans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed.

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