Phylogenies of housekeeping gene and 16S rRNA gene sequences were compared to improve the classification of the bacterial family Pasteurellaceae and knowledge of the evolutionary relationships of its members. Deduced partial protein sequences of the housekeeping genes atpD, infB and rpoB were compared in 28, 36 and 28 representative taxa of the Pasteurellaceae, respectively. The monophyly of representatives of the genus Gallibacterium was recognized by analysis of all housekeeping genes, while members of Mannheimia, Actinobacillus sensu stricto and the core group of Pasteurella sensu stricto formed monophyletic groups with two out of three housekeeping genes. Representatives of Mannheimia, Actinobacillus sensu stricto, [Haemophilus] ducreyi and [Pasteurella] trehalosi formed a monophyletic unit by analysis of all three housekeeping genes, which was in contrast to the 16S rRNA gene-derived phylogeny, where these taxa occurred at separate positions in the phylogenetic tree. Representatives of the Rodent, Avian and Aphrophilus-Haemophilus 16S rRNA gene groups were weakly supported by phylogenetic analysis of housekeeping genes. Phylogenies derived by comparison of the housekeeping genes diverged significantly from the 16S rRNA gene-derived phylogeny as evaluated by the likelihood ratio test. A low degree of congruence was also observed between the individual housekeeping gene-derived phylogenies. Estimates on speciation derived from 16S rRNA and housekeeping gene sequence comparisons resulted in quite different evolutionary scenarios for members of the Pasteurellaceae. The phylogeny based on the housekeeping genes supported observed host associations between Mannheimia, Actinobacillus sensu stricto and [Pasteurella] trehalosi and animals with paired hooves.