Male F1 hybrids between inbred strains and Mus macedonicus have very small testes and are sterile. Cytological analysis of testes shows very few meioses. To determine the genetic basis for this sterility, (C57BL/6J x Mus macedonics) F1 females were mated to males from C57BL/10J. In about half the male progeny no meiosis I was observed. About half of the animals that progressed through meiosis I showed other indications of low fertility and the balance appeared fertile. QTL analysis of the progeny suggested that loci on proximal Chrs 17 and X were involved in the sterility and a locus on Chr X in variation of body weight. There is also evidence that X//Y dissociation of the pseudo-autosomal region occurs. The QTLs on Chrs X and 17 together account for about 37% of the variance for testis weight. Congenic lines B.MAC-X(1-38), and B.MAC-17(1-23) have been constructed using a modified speed congenic approach. Testis tubules from B.MAC-X(1-38) are narrow and vacuolated. They contain only Sertoli cells and mitotically dividing spermatogonia. Very occasionally a meiotic metaphase can be observed, but no sperm are produced. Homozygous males from B.MAC-17(1-23) are sterile, producing sperm heads but no complete sperm.