Induction and function of CYR61 (CCN1) in prostatic stromal and epithelial cells: CYR61 is required for prostatic cell proliferation

Prostate. 2004 Dec 1;61(4):305-17. doi: 10.1002/pros.20098.


Background: CYR61 is an extracellular matrix-associated protein that promotes adhesion, migration, and proliferation of endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Prostate enlargement, which frequently causes the urethral compression, is often histologically observed as stromal and epithelial hyperplasia in an enlarged gland. To determine whether or not CYR61 has relevance to the progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), we investigated the induction of CYR61, and also examined its function in both prostatic stromal and epithelial cells.

Methods: Recombinant CYR61 protein was used for the examination of the activity of CYR61 as to cell adhesion and proliferation. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was utilized to screen for inducers of the CYR61 gene in prostatic cells. Finally, the effects of an anti-sense oligonucleotide, which could reduce the production of CYR61, on the morphology and growth of prostatic cells were also examined.

Results: Recombinant CYR61 protein promotes prostatic cell adhesion and proliferation. The mRNA for CYR61, a growth factor-inducible immediate early gene, was markedly induced by fetal bovine serum (FBS) within 1 hr, and strongly induced by transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta) for at least 19 hr following stimulation. The suppression of CYR61 production with an anti-sense oligonucleotide causes obvious morphological changes of prostatic cells. Furthermore, we have shown that CYR61 is necessary, at least in part, for FBS-induced prostatic cell proliferation, because dramatic inhibition of cellular growth was caused by the suppression of CYR61 production with the addition of the anti-sense oligonucleotide before FBS stimulation.

Conclusions: In this study, we demonstrate that serum growth factors induce the CYR61 gene in both stromal and epithelial cells, and that CYR61 plays functional roles in cell adhesion, morphology, and proliferation, supporting its involvement in benign prostatic enlargement. These results strongly suggest that CYR61 is a key molecule, and therefore could be a potential therapeutic target in prostatic hyperplastic growth.

MeSH terms

  • Cell Adhesion / drug effects
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Proliferation* / drug effects
  • Cysteine-Rich Protein 61
  • Epithelial Cells
  • Fetal Blood
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • Growth Substances / blood
  • Growth Substances / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Immediate-Early Proteins / genetics
  • Immediate-Early Proteins / pharmacology
  • Immediate-Early Proteins / physiology*
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / pharmacology
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / physiology*
  • Male
  • Oligonucleotides, Antisense / pharmacology
  • Prostate / cytology*
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia
  • Recombinant Proteins / pharmacology
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Stromal Cells


  • CCN1 protein, human
  • Cysteine-Rich Protein 61
  • Growth Substances
  • Immediate-Early Proteins
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Oligonucleotides, Antisense
  • Recombinant Proteins