Preparations of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) are now being considered as possible new therapeutic embolization agents. This study evaluated two different liquid PAN formulations and a solid particle form (particle diameters, 100-400 microns). Eighteen rabbits underwent unilateral renal embolization with one of the three different preparations (n = 6 in each group). PAN was effective in causing infarcts in all embolized kidneys, which were documented with both angiograms and pathologic findings. These preliminary results show that PAN may have promise as an effective agent for clinical renal embolizations.