Two cytochrome P450 isozymes, FA and FI, were isolated and characterized from liver microsomes of phenobarbital-induced baboons (Papio papio). The cytochrome FA possesses the same N-terminal amino acid sequence as P450 MK2 from crab-eating monkeys (Macaca irus) and closely resembles the human P450 3A isozymes. This cytochrome was able to oxidize nifedipine and hydroxylate testosterone at the 6 beta position. The second baboon cytochrome (FI) is closely related to the P450 2A subfamily and has the same N-terminal sequence as human P450 2A7. Like human P450 2A forms, it is highly active as a coumarin 7-hydroxylase. Antibodies against P450 FA and FI cross-react with two human liver proteins of 51 kDa and 49 kDa, respectively. The concentration of the first protein in the human samples, was five-times greater than the second. However, the latter showed marked interindividual variation. In primary cultures of human hepatocytes, rifampicin is a strong inducer of the 51-kDa protein and a moderate inducer of the 49-kDa protein, while phenobarbital has the opposite effect on the two proteins.