Twenty-two continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients, mean age 48 years, at 3 U.K. renal units were assessed with the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) before and after treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO). Mean (SD) hemoglobin (Hb) at baseline was 7.5 (1.0) gm/dL and 10.8 (1.5) gm/dL at retest. There were significant improvements in energy (p less than 0.0001), social life (p less than 0.005), relationships at home (p less than 0.05) and leisure pursuits (p less than 0.05). Twelve patients, mean age 51 years, who had already completed more than 9 months on r-HuEPO treatment were reassessed to determine the changes sustained. Mean (SD) Hb at second retest was 12.8 (1.3) gm/dL. Improvement in energy continued to be significant, and emotional wellbeing showed further improvement. Problems with household tasks, which had not shown significant improvement at Test B, were now considerably reduced (p = 0.016). The study showed far-reaching benefits similar to those reported in hemodialysis patients, in a population with a higher mean age and higher potential coexisting illness or disability than most reported hemodialysis studies.