Contextual interference: a meta-analytic study

Percept Mot Skills. 2004 Aug;99(1):116-26. doi: 10.2466/pms.99.1.116-126.


A meta-analysis of the contextual interference effect produced 139 estimates of effect sizes from 61 studies. The average overall effect size was .38. The effect size for basic research (.57) was significantly different from applied research (.19). Significant differences were also obtained between the effect sizes for adults (.50) and those for younger learners (.10). Power for retention and transfer scores was not significantly different. The overall mean power of the studies reviewed was .43.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Humans
  • Learning*
  • Motivation
  • Retention, Psychology*
  • Transfer, Psychology