Background: An increased incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) is prevalent in northern Mexico. Effects of specific dietary components on risk factors for CAD have not been evaluated in children.
Objective: The purpose was to evaluate the effects of dietary cholesterol provided by whole eggs on the lipoprotein profile, LDL size, and phenotype in children from this region.
Design: Children (29 girls and 25 boys aged 8-12 y) were randomly assigned to either 2 eggs/d (EGG period; 518 additional mg cholesterol) or the equivalent amount of egg whites (SUB period; 0 additional mg cholesterol) for 30 d. After a 3-wk washout period, the children were assigned to the alternate treatment.
Results: Subjects were classified as hyporesponders (no increase or </=0.05 mmol/L increase in plasma cholesterol for 100 mg additional cholesterol) or hyperresponders (>/=0.06 mmol/L increase). During the EGG period, the hyperresponders (n = 18) had an elevation in both LDL cholesterol (from 1.54 +/- 0.38 to 1.93 +/- 0.36 mmol/L) and HDL cholesterol (from 1.23 +/- 0.26 to 1.35 +/- 0.29 mmol/L) with no changes in LDL:HDL. In contrast, hyporesponders (n = 36) had no significant alterations in plasma LDL or HDL cholesterol. All subjects had an increase in LDL peak diameter during the EGG period (P < 0.01) and a decrease (P < 0.01) in the smaller LDL subfractions. In addition, 5 of the children having LDL phenotype B (15%) shifted from this high-risk pattern to pattern A after the EGG treatment.
Conclusions: Intake of 2 eggs/d results in the maintenance of LDL:HDL and in the generation of a less atherogenic LDL in this population of Mexican children.