Covalent attachment of small proteins to substrates can regulate protein activity in eukaryotes. SUMO, the small ubiquitin-related modifier, can be covalently linked to a broad spectrum of substrates. An understanding of SUMO's role in plant biology is still in its infancy. In this review, we briefly summarize the enzymology of SUMO conjugation (sumoylation), and the current knowledge of SUMO modification in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and other plants, in comparison to animals and fungi. Furthermore, we assemble a list of potential pathway components in the genome of A. thaliana that have either been functionally defined, or are suggested by similarity to pathway components from other organisms.