Patient preference and willingness-to-pay for Humalog Mix25 relative to Humulin 30/70: a multicountry application of a discrete choice experiment

Value Health. 2004 Jul-Aug;7(4):442-54. doi: 10.1111/j.1524-4733.2004.74007.x.


Objectives: To assess preference and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for the insulin mixture Humalog Mix25 relative to Humulin 30/70, from the patients' perspective, the relative importance of individual treatment attributes was also determined. Differences among five European countries were investigated.

Methods: Two hundred and ninety patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from five European countries. Of these, 235 were suitable for inclusion in the analysis. Their mean age was 51.3 years and, on average, patients had had diabetes for 11 years. A discrete-choice conjoint analysis was conducted using face-to-face interviews. Treatment attributes, such as timing of injections around meals, 2-hour postprandial control, effect of prandial dosing, frequency of nocturnal hypoglycemia, and cost, and levels were derived after a systematic review of all published comparative clinical trial data. Meta-analyses were undertaken where appropriate.

Results: Ninety percent (95% CI 86-93%) of patients would choose Humalog Mix25 over Humulin 30/70, at the same cost. On average, European subjects were willing to pay 111 euros per month more for Humalog Mix25 (95% CI 86.71-156.91 euros). The primary driver was the reduced risk of nocturnal hypoglycemic events, contributing 49% of WTP. The convenience of dosing immediately before the meal contributed 37%. Preference results were similar in all five countries, although WTP and sensitivity to increasing cost both varied.

Conclusions: Patients in all countries showed a preference and WTP for Humalog Mix25 over Humulin 30/70. The main drivers of patient WTP may be of interest to pharmaceutical prescribers, manufacturers, and reimbursement agencies.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Biphasic Insulins
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / economics*
  • France
  • Germany
  • Humans
  • Insulin / administration & dosage
  • Insulin / economics*
  • Insulin / therapeutic use*
  • Insulin Lispro
  • Insulin, Isophane
  • Italy
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient Satisfaction*
  • Spain
  • Time Factors
  • United Kingdom


  • Biphasic Insulins
  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin
  • Insulin Lispro
  • insulin lispro, isophane insulin lispro drug combination (25:75)
  • Insulin, Isophane