Objective: To report experience with a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) and to identify factors influencing glycemic control in a large cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and change to insulin pump therapy via continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII).
Research design and methods: In 50 patients [21 boys, 29 girls; median age 12.6 yr (range: 1.3-16.4 yr); diabetes duration 5.0 yr (0.2-13.3)], hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and ambulatory CGMS were performed before and 6 wk after starting CSII. Average glucose concentration per 24 h, during day and night time as well as number of excursions, duration, and area under the curve (AUC) of glucose values above 180 mg/dL and below 60 mg/dL were calculated from CGMS data. Simultaneously, metabolic control was documented by standardized self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG).
Results: In the total cohort, HbA1c improved from 8.1 +/- 1.2% at baseline to 7.7 +/- 0.9% after 6 wk of CSII (p <0.001). This effect was more distinct in boys (8.0 +/- 1.4 vs. 7.5 +/- 1.1%, p=0.007) than in girls (8.1 +/- 1.1 vs. 7.8 +/- 0.7%, p=0.039) as well as in patients with poor glycemic control (HbA1c >8.0%) at baseline (8.9 +/- 0.6 vs. 8.1 +/- 0.8%, p <0.001) and in those older than 12 yr (8.2 +/- 1.2 vs. 7.7 +/- 1.0%, p <0.001). At 6 wk of CSII, the values of glucose average per 24 h, AUC and time above 180 mg/dL, particularly during the day, improved. HbA1c was correlated with AUC above 180 mg/dL (r=0.742, p <0.001) and CGMS average glucose per 24 h (r=0.628, p=0.002), but to a lesser extent with SMBG values (r=0.418, p=0.054).
Conclusion: With the change to CSII, HbA1c improved significantly after 6 wk of therapy. CGMS usage provided additional information about glycemic control in these patients.