LTP and LTD, the long-term potentiation and depression of excitatory synaptic transmission, are widespread phenomena expressed at possibly every excitatory synapse in the mammalian brain. It is now clear that "LTP" and "LTD" are not unitary phenomena. Their mechanisms vary depending on the synapses and circuits in which they operate. Here we review those forms of LTP and LTD for which mechanisms have been most firmly established. Examples are provided that show how these mechanisms can contribute to experience-dependent modifications of brain function.